Wednesday, January 15, 2020

Stanley Milgram

Megan Randolph RC 250 Marcia Clay 11/3/09 A Summary of Stanley Milgram’s Obedience Study Stanley Milgram, a professor of social psychology, conducted a research study beginning in July of 1961. This research measured the willingness of participants to either obey or disobey an authority figuring giving them on a conflict between obedience to authority and personal conscience. Milgram set up this experiment at Yale University to test how much pain an ordinary citizen would inflict on another person just because an experimental scientist ordered him to.Virtually one thousand adults were observed in this experiment, and several different conditions were launched to find a limit to which the candidate would continue the order from the experimenter or refuse the order and end the experiment. This experiment consisted of a triangle, beginning with the experimenter, which was the authority, the executant, which was the participant, and the victim, which was the learner. Both learner and teacher were given a sample 45-volt electric shock from an apparatus attached to a chair into which the â€Å"actor-learner† was to be strapped.The fictitious story given to the â€Å"teachers† was that the experiment was intended to explore the effects of punishment for incorrect responses on learning behavior. The participants were first paid to participate in the experiment making it feel more real. A progression of unrevealed subjects in their roles as teacher were given simple memory tasks in the form of reading lists of two word pairs. The teacher then asked the â€Å"learner† to read them back and was instructed to administer a shock by pressing a button each time the learner made a mistake.It was understood that the electric shocks were to be of increased by 15 volts in intensity for each mistake the â€Å"learner† made during the experiment, while the actor/learner screamed and yelled louder every time. The participant believed that for every wrong answer, the learner was receiving actual shocks. In Fact, there was a pre-determined script that the teacher had no idea about. The idea that the subject thought these shocks were actually taking place, and they continued to follow the orders, is where the experiment became disturbing.This experiment, testing the willingness of normal people to carry out unethical acts, was life changing in how Milgram viewed the larger culture, for the worse. Milgram stated after completing the experiment, â€Å"†¦ the most fundamental lesson of our study: ordinary people, simply doing their jobs, and without any particular hostility on their part, can become agents in a terrible destructive process. † â€Å"This is scary, this is the definition of our greater public, and it’s all shown through this Behavioral Study of Obedience,† states Milgram.Sixty five percent of participants made it to the final 450-volt shock in Mailgrams first study. Milgram tested the experi ment in four different ways of the immediacy of the victim. Beginning with the first condition, the victim was placed in another room and could not be seen or heard by the participant, only pounding on the wall when volts reached over 300. This condition was titled remote feedback, and was revealed to be easier for the participant to continue the experiment without remorse.The second condition is where the voice protests were commenced and the teacher could hear the victim’s complaints titled voice feedback. Although they could hear the learner, the victims were still easily put out of mind because they could not be seen. The third experimental condition, Milgram placed the victim in the same room as the participant, being both visible and audible, the proximity. When the victim was close it was more difficult to exclude him, making it more difficult for the participants to obey the experimenter.Lastly, the fourth condition was the touch proximity, where the victim received a shock only when his hand rested on the shock plate. When the victim would refused to place his hand on the plate, the experimenter would order the participant to come in physical contact with the victim and force his hand onto the plate. â€Å" The Mechanism of denial can no longer be brought into play† in the proximity conditions. It’s not as easy to harm a person when you can visually see the pain one is inflicting. Forty adult subjects were studies in each condition.The data revealed â€Å"that obedience was significantly reduced as the victim was rendered more immediate to the subject†. According to Stanley Milgram’s report Some Conditions of Obedience and Disobedience to Authority, there are many different factors they may affect the end result of a subjects obedience to a dominating figure. These factors include, the immediacy of the victim, closeness of authority, tensions, and background authority. The locality of each situation showed difference s in the responses of the participant and their willingness to obey or disobey the experimenter.

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

Federal, State, And Local Rules Essay - 1970 Words

The focus of this paper was to research the federal, state, and local rules, regulations, laws, policies, and procedures pertaining to an oil spill. Oil spills can happen and asserting a plan of action and response will help minimize the impact and effects that can cause severe damage to property, businesses and the environment. One of the main agencies that react when an oil spill occurs is the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEPA). Questions were asked and evidence from several sources was accessed to formulate answers. The research discovered fortified the thesis which confirms that there is various federal, state, and local policies and procedures in place in the instance an oil spill does occur. Keywords: rules, regulations, laws, policies, procedures Impact of Oil Spills Any oil business bears the risk of an oil spill. It is critical to know how to avoid and react to this kind of catastrophes, to minimalize the effect on humanity and the environment. There are several agencies that work together to guarantee that these oil spills do not happen and to resourcefully react in the event a spill occurs. Oil spills have occurred in the past and with federal, state and local agencies working together, they can plan, respond and cleanup the contamination from the oil. In this research paper, I will explore the regulations, environmental and humanity safeguards, the cost of cleanup, loss of revenues, lawsuits, internal city policies and execution, andShow MoreRelatedCritique Of The Current Policy Challenge Essay1321 Words   |  6 Pagesresponsibility of a public servant is to its preamble declarations of the Untied State Constitution and its protection enumerated promise of fundamental fairness towards the rights of the people and by the laws in which ca me forth by its union of states’. Consequently, as the population grows and desires begins to inquire more demands on its unity to respond. The efforts of our forefathers knew their intentions of the United States Constitution were not to design a perfect set of the laws, but a set of theRead MoreFederal State And State Government890 Words   |  4 PagesThe United State Constitution provides the authority and power of the federal and state government’s jurisdictions (Cropf, 2008). This means that both federal and state governments maintain their own separate laws and officials that govern over the territories and citizenry. The one part of governing left out of the initial constitution but picked up later was the local governments. Local government levels connects to the federal system through the state processes of governing. The local levels ofRead MoreEmergency Management Laws And Act768 Words   |  4 PagesEmergency Management laws and acts are established b y the Federal Government to allow emergency managers and local elected officials the opportunity to lead disaster response and recovery from the local level to the Federal level. Many of these laws and acts give absolute power to local and state officials to make decisions to best preserve life and property during and after an incident. The laws and acts also hold these officials accountable for the actions that they take and the responsibilityRead MoreA Discussion Of Administrative Law1115 Words   |  5 PagesAdministrative Law Related to Title IX Administrative laws are rules and regulations passed by agencies appointed by legislatures. Moreover, administrative laws are used to clarify expansive laws. The Department of Education, Department of Health and Homeland Security and the U.S. Department of Agriculture are federal agencies that pass administrative laws that effect K-12 education. Furthermore, in Texas, the State Board of Education (SBOE) passes rules that become part of the Texas Administrative Code (TAC)Read MoreGas And Oil Company Is The State Where Government Control Is Limited And Texans950 Words   |  4 Pagesof Fracking and Use of Plastic Bags in Texas Texas is the state where government control is limited and Texans want to grow up by own self. Most of the cities have general rule and some have home rule. There are council-manager, mayor-council, mayor- manager which form local government. There is county government and has 254 counties in Texas. The members elected in the government by the people to represent their problem at state and federal level. They need to aware what is going in their communityRead MoreConstitution Worksheet Essay1712 Words   |  7 PagesPrinciples and Articles of the United States Constitution Worksheet Part I: Principles of the Constitution The constitution consists of some primary principles. Briefly explain the following principles and their significance in shaping American government. * Self-Government: Is the most important principle in the Constitution of the United States and refers to the need to have a system which would make sure that everyone has a voice in the local, state and national governments.(www.4uth.govRead MoreDifferences between the State and the Federal Constitution Centers1104 Words   |  4 PagesPolitics in States and Communities (Dye and MacManus, 2009), government in the constitutional form is primarily about conflict resolution. It exists to find solutions or at least to set parameters for implementing solutions within strict limitations. At the state and local levels (which operate together under state authority), governments have the freedom to address issues and conflicts very directly through the governance policies and restrictions they put in place. For the federal government, howeverRead MoreImmigration Enforcement957 Words   |  4 PagesImmigration Enforcement Immigration Enforcement There is an assessed 11 million illegal aliens that are living United States, and this population is projected to upturn by 500,000 yearly. Once a year, about 1 million people that are considered to be aliens are detained when they make the attempt to come in the United States unlawfully. Even though most of these foreigners arrive the United States for financial chances and family reunification, or they are avoiding civil trouble and political unrest, someRead MoreDecision in Verizon Communications Inc. v. Federal Communications Commission656 Words   |  3 Pagesthe United States Supreme Court case Verizon Communications Inc. v. Federal Communications Commission, Verizon Communications argued that it was wrong and unreasonable for the Federal Communications Commission to regulate and set leasing rates for networks. Ultimately, the January 14th decision held that the Federal Communications Commission can indeed set rates charged by the service provider for leased elements that are completely unbound from the providers investment. Also the Federal CommunicationsRead MoreCase Study : Southern Builders Inc. Vs. Shaw Development Llc806 Words   |  4 PagesCase 1: â€Å"Southern Builders Inc. vs. Shaw Development LLC, Case No. 19-C-07-011405 (Md. Cir. Ct. 2007)†. Facts and Issues. This is one of the first lawsuits related to green construction in the United States. In this case, Shaw Development as the owner, appointed Southern Builders Inc. as the contractor, to construct a $7.5 million, 23-unit condominium and restaurant project, known as Captain’s Galley, in Somerset County, Maryland along with obtaining the LEED-Silver certification. The thing was

Monday, December 30, 2019

How Did Dinosaurs Raise Their Families

How difficult is it to figure out how dinosaurs parented their children? Well, consider this: until the 1920s, scientists werent even sure if dinosaurs laid eggs (like modern reptiles and birds) or gave birth to live young (like mammals). Thanks to some spectacular dinosaur egg discoveries, we now know the former to be the case, but the evidence for child-rearing behavior is more elusive — consisting mainly of the tangled skeletons of individual dinosaurs of various ages, preserved nesting grounds, and analogies with the behavior of modern reptiles, birds, and mammals. One thing is clear, though: different kinds of dinosaurs had different child-rearing regimens. Just as the babies of modern prey animals like zebras and gazelles are born with the ability to walk and run (so they can stick close to the herd and evade predators), one would reasonably expect that the eggs of large sauropods and titanosaurs produced ready-to-run hatchlings. And since modern birds care for their newborns in specially prepared nests, at least some feathered dinosaurs must have done the same — not high up in trees, necessarily, but in clearly marked-out birthing grounds.​ What Can Dinosaur Eggs Tell Us About Dinosaur Families? One of the main difference between viviparous (live birthing) mammals and oviparous (egg laying) reptiles is that the former can only give birth to a limited number of live newborns at a time (one for large animals like elephants, seven or eight at a time for smaller animals like cats and pigs), while the latter can potentially lay dozens of eggs in a single sitting. A female Seismosaurus, for instance, may have laid as many as 20 or 30 eggs at a time (despite what you may think, the eggs of 50-ton sauropods werent any bigger than bowling balls, and often significantly smaller). Why did dinosaurs lay so many eggs? As a general rule, a given animal will only produce as many young as are necessary to assure the survival of the species). The gruesome fact is that out of a clutch of 20 or 30 newly hatched Stegosaurus babies, the vast majority would immediately be gobbled up by swarming tyrannosaurs and raptors — leaving just enough survivors to grow into adulthood and ensure the perpetuation of the Stegosaurus line.  And just as many modern reptiles, including turtles, leave their eggs unattended after theyre laid, its a good bet that many dinosaurs did too. For decades, paleontologists assumed that all dinosaurs employed this drop-your-eggs-and-run strategy  and that all hatchlings were left to struggle (or die) in a hostile environment. That changed in the 1970s  when Jack Horner discovered the immense nesting grounds of a duck-billed dinosaur he named Maiasaura (Greek for good mother lizard). Each of the hundreds of Maisaura females that populated these grounds laid 30 or 40 eggs apiece in circular clutches; and Egg Mountain, as the site is now known, has yielded numerous fossils not only of Maiasaura eggs, but of hatchlings, juveniles, and adults as well. Finding all these Maiasaura individuals tangled together, in different stages of development, was tantalizing enough. But further analysis demonstrated that newly hatched Maiasaura possessed immature leg muscles (and thus were probably incapable of walking, much less running), and their teeth had evidence of wear. What this implies is that adult Maiasaura brought food back to the nest and cared for their hatchlings until they were old enough to fend for themselves — the first clear evidence of dinosaur child-rearing behavior. Since then, similar behavior has been adduced for Psittacosaurus, an early ceratopsian, as well as another hadrosaur, Hypacrosaurus, and various other ornithischian dinosaurs. However, one shouldnt conclude that all plant-eating dinosaurs treated their hatchlings with this degree of tender, loving care. Sauropods, for example, probably did not look after their young too closely, for the simple reason that a twelve-inch-long, newborn Apatosaurus would easily have been crushed by the lumbering feet of its own mother! In these circumstances, a newborn sauropod might stand a better chance of survival on its own — even as its siblings were picked off by hungry theropods. (Recently, evidence has come to light that some newly hatched sauropods and titanosaurs were capable of running on their hind legs, at least for brief periods of time, which helps to support this theory.) The Parenting Behavior of Meat-Eating Dinosaurs Because they were so populous  and laid so many eggs, we know more about the parenting behavior of plant-eating dinosaurs than  that of their meat-eating antagonists. When it comes to large predators like Allosaurus and Tyrannosaurus Rex, the fossil record yields a complete blank: in the absence of any evidence to the contrary, the going assumption is that these dinosaurs simply laid their eggs and forgot about them. (Presumably, a newly hatched Allosaurus would be just as vulnerable to predation as a newly hatched Ankylosaurus, which is why theropods laid multiple eggs at a time, just like their plant-eating cousins.) To date, the poster genus for child-rearing theropods is the North American Troodon, which also has the reputation (deserved or not) of being the smartest dinosaur that ever lived. An analysis of the fossilized clutches laid by this dinosaur hints that the males, rather than the females, incubated the eggs — which may not be as surprising as you think, given that the males of many extant bird species are also expert brooders. We also have evidence of male brooding for two distantly related Troodon cousins, Oviraptor and Citipati, though its still unknown whether any of these dinosaurs cared for their young after they hatched. (Oviraptor, by the way, was given its libelous name — Greek for egg thief — in the mistaken belief that it stole and ate the eggs of other dinosaurs; in fact, this particular individual was sitting on a clutch of its own eggs!). How Avian and Marine Reptiles Raised their Young Pterosaurs, the flying reptiles of the Mesozoic Era, are a black hole when it comes to evidence of child-rearing. To date, only a handful of fossilized pterosaur eggs have been discovered, the first as recently as 2004, hardly a large enough sample to draw any inferences about parental care. The current state of thinking, based on the analysis of fossilized pterosaur juveniles, is that chicks emerged from their eggs fully cooked and required little or no parental attention. There are also hints that some pterosaurs may have buried their immature eggs rather than incubating them inside their bodies, though the evidence is far from conclusive. The real surprise comes when we turn to the marine reptiles that populated the lakes, rivers, and oceans of the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods. Compelling evidence (such as tiny embryos fossilized inside the bodies of their mothers) leads paleontologists to believe that most, if not all, ichthyosaurs gave birth to live young in the water rather than laying their eggs on land — the first, and as far as we know only, reptiles ever to have done so. As with pterosaurs, the evidence for later marine reptiles like plesiosaurs, pliosaurs, and mosasaurs is pretty much nonexistent; some of these sleek predators may well have been viviparous, but they may also have returned to land seasonally to lay their eggs.

Sunday, December 22, 2019

Essay about How To Communicate In A Relationship - 816 Words

How to Communicate in a Relatioship nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;1 Henry Roose Marion Fekete Writing 151 6 December, 1996 nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The hardest skill to master in order to maintain a successful, loving relationship is communication. Being unable to express ones thoughts clearly and accurately is a heavy burden to bear when trying to hold a conversation. It often causes misunderstandings and unnessary arguments. Plainly expressing ones thoughts is a†¦show more content†¦nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Sarcasm is often a pitfall for communication. When a person states an idea one way but means it in a totally different way, it is no wonder that he or she will be misunderstood. With just a slight change in the tone of voice, which many times may go unnoticed, the sarcasm might lose its humorous connotations and accidentally become hurtful. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;This is also true with facial expressions. They can be misinterpreted and then become a stumbling block for the rest of the conversation. When talking with your partner keep in mind that 75% of what we communicate is body language. Be careful not to imply anything with facial expressions or other body language that you do not intend. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Expressing full, complete, ideas are extremely important. If you are mad, tell your partner that you are and tell him or her the reason of the aggravation. If you express an emotion, be ready to describe it and expose its cause. It is important that you have enough trust in your partner that you can tell him or her anything. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;â€Å"There is much to be said about a good listener. They are kind, compassionate, and humble.† The ability to listen to someone and fully understand him or her is definitely a talent. Such a talent is admirable. If a healthy and fruitful relationship is the goal its members should strive to become better listeners. ThereShow MoreRelatedHow Do Men and Woman Communicate Differently in Relationships?1784 Words   |  8 PagesHow do men and woman communicate differently in relationships? Monique Giresi Professor Martin Analytical Reading 81148 I. A. How To Stay Married Anne Kingston Magazine Article B. He Said, She Said Deborah Tannen Magazine Article II. A. The magazine article titled, â€Å"How to Stay Married,† begins with a story about a 68-year old woman named Cynthia. The article has a narrative style of writing in the beginning, however as one reads on, theRead MoreHow Social Background Affects Relationships And The Way People Communicate1519 Words   |  7 Pagesxplain how: Social background Professional background Cultural background Affect relationships and the way people communicate. Social- Some children grow up in socially disadvantaged areas, poor housing conditions, low income households and single parent families, this in turn may affect a child’s learning development and restrict communication, and how you approach a family whose child may be affected due to their social background circumstances should be aware of the manner in which you approachRead More1.3 Explain how different social, professional and cultural contexts may affect relationships and the way people communicate.813 Words   |  4 Pagesï » ¿1.3 Explain how different social, professional and cultural contexts may affect relationships and the way people communicate. Different social, professional and cultural contexts may affect relationships and the way people communicate due to of a lack of understanding or knowledge of one another’s background and culture. This could be through their race, religion, ethnicity or where they come from. Each one of these can have similar or very different ways to communicate. For example NoddingRead MoreC. Explain How Different Social, Professional and Cultural Contexts May Affect Relationships and the Way People Communicate.3089 Words   |  13 Pagescompleted assessments. Assignment 6– Communication and professional relationships with children, young people and adults QUESTION 1 a. Explain why effective communication is important in developing positive relationships with children, young people and adult Effective communication is not just about speaking and listening. It is also about watching and feeling. Our body language and tone of voice actually communicate more strongly than the words we use. So, listening effectively involvesRead MoreUnit 301 Communication and Professional Relationships with Children, Young People and Adults1733 Words   |  7 Pagescommunication and relationships in a diverse school Why do we communicate? How do we communicate? Two simple questions but many different answers of how and why we communicate with others and the effect it has when communicating with people. Depending on the age of who we are trying to communicate with whether a child or an adult, someone whose English is a second language, or someone who has a disability the way in which we communicate with them should not really be much of a difference, it is how we communicateRead MoreRelationship Between A Parent And Child1653 Words   |  7 Pagessignificant other. For many, a romantic relationship is the most important element in their lives. A good relationship can improve all characteristics of your life, such as strengthening health, mind and connections with others. The ability to have a healthy loving relationship is a lot of work, give and take, and comprising of one’s individual wants and needs. Whatever you put in, the more you can get back; relationships are investments. However if the relationship is not working, it can be an astronomicalRead MoreHow Technology Has Changed Our Lives987 Words   |  4 Pageshas become the new way to communicate in today’s m illennium generation. Individuals are using phones as a part of their everyday lives. Apps and online resources have been greatly used to communicate with others. According to the author’s, technology could be the reason for building or ruining relationships. Whether or not technology could be building relationships, I believe technology is destroying communication between friends and family. Due to technology, relationships are being negatively affectedRead MoreRelationship Between Romantic Couples And The Middle East947 Words   |  4 PagesThere are lots of complicated relationships in the world and some are too complex for saying if they are â€Å"good† or â€Å"bad.† America’s relationships with some foreign countries, like China or the countries of the Middle East, are examples of these complex relationships. There are individuals that also have complex relationships with other individuals and there are extremely simple relationships. No matter how complex or basic the relationship, all successful relationships have one thing in common: goodRead MoreSocial Media And Its Effect On Society1644 Words   |  7 PagesWhether it is Facebook, Twitter or some other form. We all use it to express and communicate our thoughts and feelings about ourselves and the world. Because of this many people do not know how to communicate face to face anymore and many times even hide behind their keyboard. Keller (2013), Quotes Paul Booth an assistant professor of media and cinema studies saying â€Å"There has been a shift in the way we communicate; rather than face-to-face interaction, we’re tending to prefer mediated communicationRead MoreImportance Of Interpersonal Communication996 Words   |  4 PagesTaking this Interpersonal Communication course has opened my eyes to the importance of effective communication as it relates to relationships. The information that I’ve learned has inspired me to take a deeper look into how I c ommunicate with my husband. It has also provided an understanding regarding the differences in how he and I communicate. The communication style that I use is expressive, the style he uses is instrumental. He also interprets communication different than myself. I ve also noticed

Saturday, December 14, 2019

Sigmund Freud Essay Free Essays

Sigmund Freud was best known, in my opinion, for being the first to use the term psychoanalysis in which he accomplished through his theory of psychological reality: Id, Ego, and Superego. The Id is the unconscious mind. The Id controls basic urges, needs, and desires. We will write a custom essay sample on Sigmund Freud Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now The ego is the structured portion of the character configuration that contains protective, intuitive, knowledgeable-reasoning, and exclusive purposes. Sensible attentiveness exists in in the ego, even though not all of the processes of the ego are alert. Initially, Freud used the word ego to mean a sense of self, but later changed it to mean a set of cognitive purposes such as decision, acceptance, actuality analysis, device, and preparation, and justification, combination of data, knowledgeable operational, and recollection. The super-ego replicates the aspect of ethnic guidelines, primarily educated by parents relating their direction and influence. Freud developed his theory of the super-ego from a previous grouping of the ego model and the â€Å"unusual mystical action which executes the mission of seeing that self-absorbed gratification from the ego model is warranted†¦what we call our ‘conscience’.† For him â€Å"the setting up of the super-ego can be termed as a positive example of documentation with the parent support,† while as progress continues â€Å"the super-ego also takes on the encouragement of those who have walked into the place of parents — educationalists, teachers, individuals selected as ideal models†. A controversial idea would be one regarding religion. For Freud, religion was a manifestation of hang-ups and grief, sense contentment, and make an effort to achieve regulation over the outer world. He thought that all creeds were majorly deceitful but also added that no spiritual person would ever distinguish that. This was possibly one of his most debatable declarations and it got him even more recognition. Freud encountered extreme hardship as a young kid as well as the segregation from some schooling prospects due to his Jewish upbringing. These may have had some major influences that led to Freud’s interpretations on the ego as he may have considered that there are those with more ego than others. I think that many people disagree with Freud and his theories because they didn’t think of it first. Also, some individuals just can’t grasp that there is truth in his theories. He was an early neural investigator into spastic paralysis, and a productive writer, representation on therapy to give to the history, understanding and analysis of beliefs. He expressed and developed the theories of the comatose, of infant desirability, of suppression, and suggested a triple description of the brain’s configuration, all as part of a drastically new theoretical and beneficial state of mind for the acceptance of human emotional growth and the conduct of irregular psychological circumstances. How to cite Sigmund Freud Essay, Essays

Friday, December 6, 2019

Enviormental Risk Essay Example For Students

Enviormental Risk Essay In the 1970s, natural hazards were an important subject of topical study, as the nature of their impact on human populations and what they valued was increasing in frequency at quite a rapid rate (Burton, Kates, White, 1978). During the 75 years after 1900 the population of the earth increased by a staggering 2.25 billion people. People who needed land on which to live and work. As the population rose people were dispersed in more places and in larger numbers than before. The predominant movement of people being from farm to town or city (Burton et al,1978.). It is this growing world population, Burton et al (1978) suggest, that is the main reason behind why hazards are increasing and were seen to pose such a threat to humankind in the 70s. While the average number of disasters remained relatively constant at about 30 per year, death rates climbed significantly.As the growing world population requires the cultivation of land more prone to hazards, more people and property are thus ex posed to the risk of disaster than ever before, and as Stow (1992) argues, the death toll inevitably rises. An example that shows the concern that humans faced from the environment can be exemplified by the Bangladesh cyclone of 1970, which killed approximately 250,000 people. Although part of the reason for so many deaths can be put down to a then poorly understood process, land-use can also be implicated. Because of a rising population, land in Bangladesh was reclaimed by the government and held against the sea. People in large numbers were then encouraged to occupy the area. An area which turned out to be one of great risk. Major disruption was inevitable Burton et al (1978) argue whenever population was in the path of such forces. Had reasonable measures been taken in advance of the storm, the material damage, loss of life and social dislocation could have been seriously reduced. In the 1990s we live in an information age. Today we have remarkable monitoring and predictive capabilities for natural hazards. The use of advanced telecommunications and emergency management, together with the exploitation of geographic information systems in hazard mitigation has greatly reduced the extent to which natural hazards are seen as a threat to people in the 90s (Chapman et al, 1994). Loss of life and property from natural disasters continue to rise though as the population of the world rises and puts more demands on the environment for land resources. White (1974) argues that environmental risk may be considered to be primarily a function of the value systems of a society. How dangerous a natural hazard is, is not measured in absolute terms but in how dangerous it is perceived to be. 20 years ago, technology hadnt advanced to the level at which natural hazards could be properly understood and prepared for (Perry,1981). Chapman (1994) argues that in technologically advan ced societies we have greatly accepted the hazards inherent in the comforts of life that technology provides and learned to live with hazards. (p.156).In the 1970s, using Heathcotes (1979) definition, normal human expectations were lower than they are today therefore causing such concern for the environmental threat to humans. 20 years ago it was the spectacular, rapid onset, intensive hazards such as earthquakes, volcanoes, cyclones and floods that caught the media headlines and caused concern for the future of humankind from the environment. Today it is the slow onset, pervasive hazards that have caught the attention of the whole world, and in the long term pose more threat than the intensive hazards (Chapman,1994). Space exploration has given us an awareness that it is human activity that is contributing to this long term threat and the future of the planet as a whole (McCall,1992). It has been suggested that when the history of the 20th century is written, environmentalism will be judged to be the single most important social movement of the period (Brenton,1994). While the threat from humans to the environment has been an issue for some time, the conflict has been sharpened by the emergence of new concerns; ozone depletion, global warming, loss of biological diversity and the destruction of the rainfo rests. Prior to the late 20th century the main insults to the environment were evident, people could see smog and pollution and notice animals missing from the forests. These new issues involve a new type of danger to the environment (Suzuki,1990). Dangers which are much less visible and often will not materialise for years to come. It is primarily because of scientific predictions that we know about them and without science would have probably gone largely unrecognised until it was too late for action to be taken (McKibben,1989). These new dangers are ones that can be measured and enumerated by scientists. The belief that the earth has been seriously damaged and is being damaged more rapidly than ever before is a far more prevalent and respectable belief than ever before. It is a belief that is growing in popularity (Meyer and Turner,1995). Johnson, Tayor and Watts (1995) point out that: increasingly the assumption that the earth is being improved requires a defence and an explanat ion, whilethe assumption that it is being dangerously degradedrequires none. (p.304). Buddhist Art In Japan EssayREFRENCESBrenton, T. (1994). The Greening of Machiavelli: The History of International Environmental Politics. Earthscan Publications, London. Burton, I., Kates, R.W. and White,G.F. (1978). The Environment as Hazard. Oxford Uni. Press. New York.. Chapman, D.M. (1994). Natural Hazards. Oxford Uni. Press, New York. Heathcote, R.L. (1979). The Threat from Natural Hazards In Australia in R.L. Heathcote and B.G. Thom (eds): Natural Hazards in Australia. 3-12, Australian Academy of Science, Canberra. Kevies, D.J. (1992). Some Like it Hot. New York Review of Books. 39:31-39. McCall, G.J.H. (1992). Natural and Man Made Hazards: Their Increasing Importance in the End 20th Century World in G.J.H.McCall, D.J.C.Laming and S.C.Scott (eds): Geohazards: Natural and Man Made. 1-4, Chapman and Hall, London. McKibben,B. (1990). The End of Nature. Penguin, Middlesex. Meyer, W.R. and Turner, B.L. (1995). The Earth Transformed: Trends, Trajectories and Patterns in R.J. Johnson, P.J. Taylor and M.J.Watts (eds): Geographies of Global Change. 302-317, Blackwell, Oxford. Pearce, D. (1995). Blueprint 4: Capturing Environmental Value. Oxford Uni. Press, New York. Perry,A.H. (1981). Environmental Hazards in the British Isles. Allen and Unwin. London. Schnieder, S.H. (1989). Global Warming: Are We Entering The Greenhouse Century ?. Sierra Club Books, New York. Stow, D.A.V. (1992). Preface in G.J.H.McCall, D.J.C.Laming and S.C.Scott (eds): Geohazards: Natural and Man Made. i-ii, Chapman and Hall, London. Suzuki,D. and Gordon, A. (1990). Its a Matter of Survival. Harvard Uni Press, Harvard. Category: History

Thursday, November 28, 2019

How Social Tensions Led To Witchcraft Essays - Magic,

How Social Tensions led to Witchcraft How Social Tensions led to Witchcraft The history of witchcraft during seventeenth century New England is inherently a history of direct confrontations within communities where relationships become tainted with suspicion, revenge and anger. The documents in Witch-Hunting in Seventeenth Century New England have retold the events and stories of Puritan New England to give the modern reader an understanding of the repressive social institutions of religion and family structure which were controlling factors that lay behind the particular cases discussed in the book. However, in order to really interpret the structure of witchcraft, it is important to consider that social tensions (most likely a dispute or argument) combined with personal or familial bad luck, were the root of all these occurrences. In New England, the term "witch" in New England served as identification used for punishment, revenge, or both. For the most part, townspeople used this term to belligerent or "troublesome" people. These "witches" were accused for making children sick, causing animal deaths, and inducing pain and suffering. Or they could have been accused due to evidence of strange events, or their mysterious character. Perfect models of this characteristic would be Hugh and Mary Parsons. Mary and Hugh Parsons lived in Springfield, Massachusetts. In chapter 2 of Witch-Hunting in Seventeenth Century New England, the introduction clearly conveys that relationships within the Parson family were filled with problems. With the town's houses built so close to each other, it could be assumed that neighbors were able to hear every argument and fight that took place within the Parson household. In the Puritan community, the kind of behavior that was observed of the Parson was out of the ordinary. Consequently, when Mary accuses Widow Marshfield of witchcraft for an unknown reason, it seriously damaged the Parsons social reputation ? something that the Puritans took very seriously (Hall 29). From then on, suspicions and lack of trust started to be associated with the Parsons. Accusations of witchcraft often followed arguments that would increase the social tensions in the community. These damaging accusations were usually the spiteful acts of angry, petty people who were looking for revenge following an argument. Hugh fits these criteria perfectly ? he was a very quarrelsome workman, often displeasing his customers to the extent of where they hate him. A situation that demonstrates this is the case of Blanche Bedortha and her painful fits. Blanche blamed her ailments on Hugh based on an argument between him and Rice Bedortha, her husband. When having her "fits," Blanche distinctly recalled the dispute and at once suspected that Hugh had used witchcraft on her (Hall 36). This demonstrates that Hugh was considered troublesome, and to accuse him of witchcraft would be the perfect punishment ? or reprisal. Actions of a person can also cause social tension among the town. The way a person behaves, acts, and responds can differentiate from the ordinary to the weird. In Puritan society, anything out of the normal is very suspicious, especially when someone does not react to a situation they way society would. Many people were accused of witchcraft because they behaved abnormally to a death of a family member or a neighbor. When Moxon's child died, Hugh did not have any emotions or sympathy. This attitude combined with the past argument that they had, Moxon immediately accused Hugh of witchcraft. Again, this case happened again when his wife Mary accused him of witchcraft. This was due to the fact that Hugh once more had no emotions when his kids died. When accusations were released, the accused would in no way regain their social standing ever again, even if they were found innocent after a trial. Magnified suspicions and distrust increased the social tension between the accused and the public. Therefore, when inexplicable events took place, the people accused were the first on the blame list. This was the case in many seventeenth century New England towns. Again, this situation could easily be seen in Hugh's case. After being tried as a witch, every move, action and word was taken as evidence of witchcraft. Combined with his bad luck, and family misfortune, Hugh was turned into the town's social scapegoat, responsible for every strange and inexplicable event that religion or reason could not explain. A perfect example was the "rusty knife" incident. When Griffith Jones was having dinner, he noticed that his good knives had mysteriously disappeared. He resorted to using a rusty knife in place of them. When he was cleaning the table, he suddenly saw that the good knives were next to the rusty knife. Griffith perceived this a very puzzling